Introduction to the working principle of optical fiber optic splitter

The optical fiber optic splitter is a device used to realize the splitting and combining of light wave energy. It distributes the light energy transmitted in one optical fiber to two or more optical fibers according to a predetermined ratio, or combines the optical energy transmitted in multiple optical fibers into one optical fiber.

When a single-mode fiber transmits an optical signal, the light energy is not completely concentrated in the core to propagate, and a small amount is propagated through the cladding close to the core. If it is close, the mode field of the light transmitted in one fiber can enter the other fiber and the optical signal will be redistributed in the two fibers.

According to the principle, optical fiber splitters can be divided into two types: fused taper type and planar waveguide type. The fused taper type product is formed by fusing two or more optical fibers on the side; the planar waveguide type is a micro-optical component type product, which adopts Photolithography technology forms optical waveguides on dielectric or semiconductor substrates to achieve branch distribution functions. The two types of optical splitting principles are similar. They can achieve different sizes of branches by changing the evanescent field coupling between fibers (coupling degree, coupling length) and changing the fiber radius. Conversely, multiple optical signals can be combined into one signal. called a synth. Fused-cone fiber optic couplers have become the mainstream manufacturing technology in the market because of their simple manufacturing method, low price, easy connection with external optical fibers, and the advantages of being resistant to mechanical vibration and temperature changes.